Commonly Recognized Research Paper
by George Brosi
Only use sources explicitly attributed to a specific individual
or enumerated group of individuals. Thus, do not quote, paraphrase
or summarize material in a pamphlet or even a newspaper article
which does not list an author or authors.
The first time you use the name of a person--an historical
figure, an author or even a fictional character--employ the full
name. If you have not previously referred to another person with the
same last name, you may subsequently refer to that person by last
name only or by first and last name. This applies regardless of
gender, race, or age. This convention means that you never need to
use "Ms.," "Dr." or other abbreviated titles.
Before using any abbreviations, write out all the words and put
the abbreviation in parentheses immediately afterwards. For example,
"The Kentucky Educational Reform Act (KERA) has many negative
impacts. KERA, for example . . ."
Do not use parentheses except, as above, when introducing
abbreviations and when employing parenthetical documentation.
Never use short-cuts such as "etc," or the ampersand, "&."
Write out any numbers you can convert into three or less words.
For example, "one million," "seventeen," "thirty-three." On the
other hand, always employ numerals to denote dates. For example,
"3000 B.C.E." or "after the year, 1, the Romans . . ." "1492,"
"1993." Note that in academic circles B.C.E., Before the Common Era,
has superseded B.C., Before Christ, as a more universally acceptable
convention, world wide. When employing a numeral, utilize
accompanying symbols, such as "$" and "%." When writing out the
number, write out "dollars" and "percent."
Do not utilize contractions. Write out, "do not," "it is" and
other pairs of words which, in informal writing, sometimes are
contracted into "don't" and "it's." The apostrophe, of course, still
must be employed to denote possessives.
Do not divide single words into syllables at the end of a line.
However, when two words are hyphenated to denote one concept, such
as "so-called," a hyphen may be used at the end of the line.